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Lexikon


Ammunition / ammunition parts

Objects or parts thereof for the purpose of military use, such as cartridges, cartridges, warheads, hand grenades, mines, bombs, torpedoes, and missiles, including propellants and pyrotechnics. Ammunition can also contain fire, fog, irritants or chemical agents. This ammunition is also known as storage munition.

Ammunition expert/specialist

Holder of Certificate of competency with professional certification by a state or state-recognized basic course for the handling of discovered ammunition for the disposal of weapons.

ammunition scrap

Ammunition scrap are ammunition fragments or ammunition parts without attachment of explosives.

Best available technology

Another concept for the state of science and technology is the best available (also obtainable) technique (BAT). It does not need to be tested or economically viable. This legal concept is defined, in particular, by the Community law of the European Union, including Council Directive 96/61 / EC of 24th September 1996 on the integrated prevention and reduction of environmental pollution (IPPC Directive) has been introduced into the national law of Member States.

Blasting

By blasting is meant the intended sudden destruction (separation, comminution and throwing away) of an object which completely or partially surrounds an explosive charge, utilizing the energy of an explosion. Of the large number of known gaseous, liquid and solid explosives, only a small selection is suitable for explosive technical purposes.

Capable for handling

Stands for transportable

certificate of competence

Holder of a certificate of competence according to § 20 Explosives Act (SprengG).

Chemical warfare agents

As chemical agents, chemical substances are defined by military definition, which can be used in a gaseous, liquid or solid state because of their toxic action against humans, animals or plants for war or military purposes, and to weaken the fighting power of the enemy by temporary, permanent or fatal poisoning. Chemical agents are related to substances commonly used in the chemical industry. These substances were made into chemical agents (e.g., phosgene COCl2 and hydrogen cyanide HCN) only on the basis of military purpose.

Clearance Area

Area, which is exposed with weapons and is cleared. This also includes individual discoveries.

Cordon plan

This is the graphic representation of the spatial arrangement of the blasting site, danger area and barrier line with the detection of objects to be protected.

Danger

A danger means a situation in which a state or a behavior would be reasonably likely to lead to damage to the goods of public security (in particular life and health, liberty, property of the individual) or public order if the event were unimpeded. The damage does not need to be expected with certainty.

Defuse

Eliminate or reduce the risk of unwanted triggering or release of the charge(s) of ammunition whose safety condition is or may be impaired, with the aim of making ammunition safe for handling and transport.

Defusing methods are e.g.

  • Ignition chain interruption (securing the detonator, destroying, damaging, blocking or
  • removal of functionally important detonators, etc.) • Remove the ignition devices
  • Interrupting of operational sequences

Demolishment

Irreversible invalidation of explosives, objects with explosives or explosive bodies, without these being used for their intended purpose. Demolishment includes burning, burning, burning, blasting, chemical treatment.

Detonation

A detonation is an explosion in which the diffusion of the chemical reaction within the explosive is coupled to a shock wave.

Discovered ammunition

Ammunition, or explosive war weapons that have not been deposited, monitored or administered continuously.

Disposal of weapons (EOD)

The civilian EOD in Germany is a task to secure public security and order, therefore a corresponding "statutory regulation of ordnance" has usually been issued in every federal state.

EOD begins with historical exploration, which ends with a evaluation. Subsequently, the technical investigation follows, which ends with the risk assessment as a final evaluation. If the suspicion of the danger is confirmed, evacuation is planned and initiated on the basis of a clearance concept.

First clearance capability (e.g. constructing a construction road) is made. For probing and detecting ordnance, devices which correspond to the state of the art are used. Exposed ordnance is identified by a Holders of certificates of competence. In general, the ordnance is recovered and transported in a Provisioning facility within the clearance area.

As a rule, destruction is carried out by the competent disposal service of the federal state in an appropriate way outside the site. If transportation is prohibited, the weapon is destroyed on the spot. This work can also be used to commission commercial disposal service detachments, in accordance with the battlefield clearance unit.

Duds

Means of warfare which have been prepared, deployed, catapulted, thrown, or mislaid, and which have failed to act due to a failure or for any other reason.

Evaluation

Each planning and examination step shall conclude with an assessment which is in accordance with the facts and the resulting consequences.

Exploration

Determination of a possible charge by means of warfare.

Explosion

The explosion is a reaction form of substances that are associated with an extremely rapid change in the parameters of pressure, temperature and volume in the resulting or existing gases.

Explosive

The term "explosive" refers to all compounds or mixtures which are produced by heat, impact, shock, friction, or similar effects, with the formation of gases and giving a considerable quantity of heat without supply of oxygen.

Explosive substance

Explosives are the substances and articles listed in Annex III of the Explosives Act (BGBL I p. 577 and p. 1530), which are classified according to the provisions of Council Directive 93/115 / EEC of 5 April 1993 (harmonization of provisions on recreational and recreational facilities) Control of explosives for civilian purposes (Ab. EC No. L 121, p. 20), as amended, are considered to be similar or similar in composition and effect.

Exposure

Exposure is to dig away until an identification of the weapon is possible.

Fog substances

Chemical substances which, as a result of physical or chemical processes, form aerosols which lead to visual impairment.

Freedom of warfare / exemption of weapons

The freedom of warfare describes the situation of land subject to combatant attack after cleansing and clearing. It shall be explained after the completion of the work (or the search has been carried out) with reference to the cleaning objective and the technique used.

Generally accepted rules of technology

From the state of the art the concept of the generally accepted rules of technology is different. It tends to be a lesser stage of technical development, and the techniques must have already proved successful in practice. The generally acknowledged rules of technology are acknowledged by the majority of the experts, scientifically based, practically tested and adequately proven rules for solving technical problems.

They must be recognized as correct and appropriate by a majority of the specialists in the relevant area, as part of a general, coherent technical set of rules and in their effectiveness.

Hazard/Risk assessment

The hazard/risk assessment is the final assessment of the hazard/risk potential. It is specific to the potentially explosive and detonative effect on the potentially affected protective goods. The aim of the hazard assessment is to develop a suspicious area or a

single evidence either from the suspicion to dismiss or as a combatant Area or point of individual discovery, and to prepare the decision on the action to be taken.

ignition means

Fuses are substances or products which are used to initiate the reaction of explosives, ie ignition. They are divided into explosive and non-explosive ignition means, depending on whether they possess explosive properties or not (explosive cord, blasting capsule, explosive retarder, electric igniter, fuse, ignition fuse).

incendiary material

Solid chemical compounds, liquids or mixtures that develop high combustion temperatures after firing (auto- ignition or spark ignition), burn long, stick to surfaces and be difficult to erase.

Means of weapon

The Federal Armed Forces for Combatants' define as means of weapon:

  • had become abandoned and destined for warfare and of military origin and parts of such objects; which • contain chemical, fog, fire or irritants warfare agent or residues of these substances;
  • Explosives or residues of these substances or from explosives or their residues; or
  • are war weapons or essential parts of war weapons.

Probing

In the case of a weapon clearing, the ground is examined with active and / or passive probes. After the authorized person has permitted to clear demarcated areas in accordance with § 19 para. 1 no. 3 Explosive act, the ground can be expanded to the released depth by additional visual control. This process is repeated until reaching the excavation sole.

In order to ensure freedom from warfare, excavation soils and pit excavations or walls, depending on the presumed means of weapons, must be investigated and, if necessary, cleared by means of active and / or passive probes.

Provisioning facilities

Repository for salvaged warfare until the abduction by the state clearance service

quality assurance

The quality assurance is to ensure that the demands made of the work requirements and requirements as well as the applicable laws and standards are met. The quality is up to the contractor. The contractor shall document the quality assurance measures so that they can be understood completely by third parties

ransportable

Weapons are, in principle, to be regarded as not able to handle. They are therefore considered to be non- transportable until a competent person declares them to be transportable.

 

Recovery

Collecting ammunition in places with unforeseen events:

  • bring the ammunition to safety (security)
  • to place the source of dangers in a different place;
  • to direct the ammunition to other division / subsection of ammunition handling.

The recovery activities contain, such as for example, tracking, uncovering, identifying, guarding, examining, defusing, restoring the handling and transport security and packing the ammunition as well as clearing up the fire / accident side.

responsible person

Person (pursuant to § 19 of the German Explosives Act), who is in possession of a certificate of competency pursuant to § 20 of the German Explosives Act, and in particular the special expert as a supervisory person in the disposal of the means of disposal.

Rules of technology

In the following, the terms "state of the art", "generally accepted rules of technology", "state of science and technology" and "best available technology" are explained.

State of science and technology

The term "state of science and technology" is used to describe technical top performances, which are scientifically assured. This standard is only required by the legal system for work under the Federal Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance, and for all other engineering activities, this goes beyond the usual requirements.

The state of science and technology

  • is scientifically justified,
  • Is technically feasible,
  • can be without practical experience, • is publicly accessible.

State of the art

The term “state of the art” means at a certain time, based on reliable knowledge of science and technology. The state of the art also includes that it is economically feasible.

The state of the art is the stage of development of procedures, facilities or operations which makes it possible to measure the practical suitability of the measure in relation to the objectives pursued (e.g. the objectives of occupational health and safety, environmental protection, safety for third parties, high levels in relation to the aspects to be considered).

The state of the art is always governed by generally accepted rules of technology
Designated out and the state of the art always goes beyond what is known in generally accepted rules of technology and contains the expert knowledge available, is scientifically justified, is practically tested and is sufficiently proven.

To identify

The means of weapon must be identified by the ammunition expert/specialist, to be assessed with regard to safe road transport and to be examined for transportability. This ordinance shall not be applicable to any means of transport which are not considered as transportable.

Transport

Part of the EOD. Outside the clearance site, the terms "transport" ("ADR") or "transfer" are used. This is allowed only to the governmental battlefield clearance unit.