Useful information


Block-off plan

Is the graphic representation of the spatial arrangement of the blast site, danger zone and cordon area with the recording of objects requiring special protection.

Generally recognized rules of technology

The term generally recognized rules of technology differs from the state of the art. It tends to represent a lower level of technical development; the techniques must have already proven themselves in practice.
The generally recognized rules of technology are rules for solving technical tasks that are recognized by the majority of experts, scientifically substantiated, practically tested and sufficiently proven.
They must be part of a general, coherent set of technical rules and their effectiveness must be recognized as correct and appropriate by the majority of experts in the respective field.

Holder of a certificate of competence

Holders of a certificate of competence in accordance with § 20 of the Explosives Act (SprengG).

Storage facility

Storage location for recovered explosive ordnance until it is removed by the state explosive ordnance disposal service.


Recovering munitions at locations with unforeseen events with the target,

  • to bring the ammunition to safety (security),
  • to move the source of danger to another location or
  • transfer the ammunition to other areas/sub-areas of ammunition handling

Recovery also includes the necessary activities such as detecting, uncovering, identifying, guarding, examining, defusing, restoring handling and transportation safety and packing the ammunition as well as cleaning up the site of the fire/accident.

Best available technology

Another term for the state of the art in science and technology is best available technology (BAT). It does not have to be proven or economically viable. This legal concept is introduced into the national law of the member states primarily by European Union Community law, including Council Directive 96/61/EC of September 24, 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive).


Each planning and investigation step must conclude with an assessment that recognizes the facts and the resulting consequences.

Blank bombs

Explosive ordnance that is armed, ready to detonate, rendered safe or otherwise prepared for use and which has been fired, dropped, catapulted, thrown or relocated and which has not been effective due to failure or intentionally or for other reasons.

Incendiary substances

Solid chemical compounds, liquids or mixtures that develop high combustion temperatures after ignition (self-ignition or external ignition), burn for a long time, adhere well to surfaces and are difficult to extinguish.

Chemical warfare agents

According to the military definition, chemical warfare agents are chemical substances that can be used in a gaseous, liquid or solid state for war purposes or military operations due to their toxic effect against humans, animals or plants and are intended to weaken the fighting power of the enemy through temporary, permanent or lethal poisoning. Chemical warfare agents are related to substances commonly used in the chemical industry. These substances only became chemical warfare agents because of their military purpose (e.g. phosgene and hydrogen cyanide).


A detonation is an explosion in which the propagation of the chemical reaction in the explosive is coupled with a shock wave.
Eliminating or reducing the risk of unintentional initiation or release of the active charge(s) of ammunition whose safety condition is or may be impaired, with the aim of making the ammunition safe to handle and transport.

Disarming methods are e.g.

  • Disrupting the detonator chain (securing the detonator; destroying, damaging, blocking or removing functionally important detonator parts, etc.)
  • Removing the ignition devices
  • Interruption of functional sequences

Determination of possible exposure to explosive ordnance.


An explosion is a form of reaction of substances that is accompanied by an extremely rapid change in the parameters of pressure, temperature and volume in the gases that are produced or present.


Explosives are the substances and articles listed in Annex III of the Explosives Act (BGBl. I p. 577 and p. 1530) which are considered as such or are similar to them in composition and effect in accordance with Council Directive 93/15/EEC of 5 April 1993 (Harmonization of the provisions relating to the placing on the market and supervision of explosives for civil uses (OJ EC No. L 121 p. 20), as amended).

Expert in ammunition

Holder of a certificate of competence with proof of expertise from a state or state-recognized basic course for handling found ammunition for explosive ordnance disposal.


Exposing is digging until the explosive ordnance can be identified.

Found munitions

Ammunition or explosive weapons of war that have not been continuously stored, monitored or managed.


A danger refers to a situation in which, if events were to proceed unhindered, a situation or behavior would with sufficient probability lead to damage to the protected interests of public safety (in particular life and health, freedom, property of individuals) or public order. The damage therefore does not need to be expected with certainty.

Hazard assessment

The risk assessment is the final evaluation of the risk potential. It covers the possible explosion and detonation effects on the potentially affected protected goods on a case-by-case basis. The aim of the hazard assessment is to either release an area suspected of containing explosive ordnance or an individual site from suspicion or to determine and characterize it as an area or individual site contaminated with explosive ordnance and to prepare the decision on the measures to be taken.

Capable of being handled

Means transportable.


The explosive ordnance must be identified by the qualified person, assessed with regard to safe transportation by road and examined for transportability. This general ruling does not apply to explosive ordnance that has not been declared fit for transportation.

Explosive ordnance

The federal government’s explosive ordnance clearance work aid defines explosive ordnance as

  • objects and substances of military origin and parts of such objects that have become unclaimed and are intended for warfare
  • contain chemical warfare agents, smoke, incendiary or irritant substances or residues of such substances,
  • Containing explosives or residues thereof or consisting of explosives or residues thereof, or
  • are weapons of war or essential parts of weapons of war
Emunitions disposal

The civilian disposal of explosive ordnance in Germany is a task for safeguarding public safety and order, which is why a corresponding “Explosive Ordinance” has usually been issued in every federal state.
Explosive ordnance disposal begins with a historical investigation, which concludes with an assessment. This is usually followed by a technical investigation, which ends with a final risk assessment. If the suspicion of danger is confirmed, the evacuation is planned and initiated on the basis of an evacuation concept.
First, the evacuation capability is established (e.g. creation of a construction road). State-of-the-art equipment is used to probe and locate the explosive ordnance. Exposed explosive ordnance is identified by the holder of a certificate of competence. As a rule, the object is recovered and transported to a staging area within the clearance site before being destroyed.
Destruction is usually carried out by the responsible explosive ordnance disposal service of the federal states in a suitable manner outside the clearance site. If transportation/removal is not possible, the explosive ordnance is destroyed on site. Commercial explosive ordnance clearance companies can also be commissioned to carry out this work after consultation with the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Service.

Extremity of explosive ordnance

Explosive ordnance clearance describes the situation of properties contaminated with explosive ordnance after clearance and removal work has been carried out. It is declared after completion of the work (or search) with reference to the clearance target and the technology used.

Munitions/parts of munitions

Items or their parts for the intended military use with explosives, such as cartridges, cartridges, warheads, hand grenades, mines, bombs, torpedoes and rockets, including propellants and pyrotechnics. Ammunition may also contain incendiary, smoke, irritant or chemical warfare agents. This ammunition is also referred to as stockpile ammunition.

Scrap ammunition

Ammunition scrap is fragments of ammunition or parts of ammunition without explosive residue.

Mist substances

Chemical substances which, as a result of physical or chemical processes, form aerosols that reduce visibility

Quality assurance

Quality assurance serves to ensure that the requirements and demands placed on the activity as well as the applicable laws and standards are met. Quality assurance is the responsibility of the Contractor. The Contractor shall document the quality assurance measures in such a way that they can be fully traced by third parties.

Clearance site

Area that is contaminated with explosive ordnance and is being cleared. This also includes individual sites.

Rules of technology

The terms “state of the art”, “generally recognized rules of technology”, “state of the art in science and technology” and “best available technology” are explained below.


During an explosive ordnance clearance during construction, the soil is examined with active and/or passive probes. After layer-by-layer clearance of demarcated areas by the responsible person in accordance with Section 19 (1) No. 3 SprengG, the soil can be excavated to the approved depth under additional visual inspection. This process is repeated until the excavation base is reached.

Depending on the suspected explosive ordnance, the excavation floor and pit slopes or walls must be systematically examined over their entire surface using active and/or passive probes and cleared if necessary to ensure that they are free of explosive ordnance.

State of the art

This term refers to technical possibilities at a certain point in time, based on reliable scientific and technical knowledge. The state of the art also means that it is economically feasible.

The state of the art is the level of development of advanced processes, equipment or operating methods that makes the practical suitability of the measure appear assured overall with regard to the objectives pursued (e.g. the objectives of occupational health and safety, environmental protection, safety for third parties, economic efficiency: i.e. generally to achieve a generally high level in relation to the aspects to be considered).

The state of the art always goes beyond the generally recognized rules of technology and contains the specialist knowledge available to experts, is scientifically based, has been tested in practice and is sufficiently proven.

State of the art in science and technology

The term “state of the art in science and technology” describes technical excellence that is scientifically proven. This standard is only required by the legal system for work in accordance with the Federal Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance; for all other engineering activities, this goes beyond the usual requirements.

The state of the art in science and technology

  • is scientifically based,
  • is technically feasible,
  • can be without practical proof,
  • is publicly accessible.

Part of the explosive ordnance clearance. Outside the clearance site, the terms “transportation” (according to ADR) or “shipment” are used. This is only permitted for the state explosive ordnance disposal service.


Explosive ordnance must always be regarded as non-handleable. They are therefore not considered transportable until a specialist declares them transportable.

Responsible person

Person (in accordance with § 19 SprengG) who is in possession of a certificate of competence in accordance with § 20 SprengG and, in particular, proves special expertise as a supervisor in the disposal of explosive ordnance and is appointed for the respective clearance site in accordance with § 21 SprengG.


Destruction is the irreversible rendering ineffective of explosives, objects with explosives or explosive devices without using them for their intended purpose. Destruction includes burning, incineration, burning out, blasting, chemical treatment.


Ignition agents are substances or products that are used to initiate the conversion of explosives, i.e. for ignition. They are divided into high-explosive and non-explosive detonators, depending on whether they have explosive properties or not (detonating cord, detonating capsule, detonating retardant, electric detonator, detonating cord, detonating cord igniter).